Mali, a country with more than 65 local languages, has dropped French from its constitution, the country’s official language since 1960. Languages like Bambara, Bobo, Dogon and Minyanka were included in the National language under the 1982 decree.
Table of Contents
Interestingly the coup of 2020 and 2021 has daunted the relationship between the government and the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali(MINUSMA) which was established in 2013 to deploy humanitarian assistance, to endorse a ceasefire among the region.
As of February 2023, there were 17,430 personnel deployed by the UN consisting personnel’s in huge numbers from Chad, Bangladesh, Egypt, Niger etc. The Total fatalities for MINUSMA stands at 303 and the approved budget in 2021/2022 was $1,26,21,94,200.
MALI DISRUPTION WITH UN
The UN in may published a report accusing Malian troops of executing 500 people in March 2022, it involved an anti-Jihadist operation. The reports also included Russia as its provoker, UN reported that the foreigners were white men and targeting the involvement of Russian backed Wagner Group.
The USA has imposed sanctions on top Junta citing their involvement with the Wagner Group. Although the internal government has never considered the presence of the Wagner group. The three sanctioned include Defense Minister Col. Sadio Camara, Air Force Chief Col. Alou Boi Diarra and the deputy of the same Lt. Col. Adama Bagayoko.
Human Rights Watch Group claimed that atrocities against the civilians continue in Mali, Russia’s Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov has said that Wagner’s presence in Mali is only for the betterment of the security. Mali has been accused as a hotspot of acquiring Turkey’s weapon on the behalf of Wagner.
UN Peacekeepers are given credit for the tranquility of the region and saving people from an orthodox Islamist insurgency. In a report it is said that Mali has paid around $200 million to Wagner.
More African countries have shifted their domain from west or colonials towards Asian Countries and Russian backed countries. It is estimated that country can have negative repercussions after the withdrawal of UN troops. Wagner has expanded its foot in Africa strongly in the recent development of years.
Wagner’s interest in the region can be also linked to its rich gold reserves as well.
In the early 2012s a rebellion was started named Tuareg! Which began in the Northern part led by National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad(MNLA) and the country faced sanction and an embargo by ECOWAS. The Northern part was declared as an independent Azawad but the tide turned when the Islamist group Ansar Dine and Al Qaeda in the Maghreb turned against the MNLA and thus in 2013 the French Force intervened at the request of the government.
The country in the past was colonized by France!
THE GAME OF GOLD
Mali is well known for its Gold Reserves and the history linked to it. It is the 3rd largest producer of Gold in Africa. It is also the birthplace of Mansa Musa, the richest man who has ever lived, the country is well known for its export of salt despite being landlocked.
The government talked with miners to change the mining laws in order to increase private companies interest to 35% from 20%.
The current mining law which was passed in 2019 gave the states right to 10% stake rights after acquiring a further 10% stake. The separate bill would give powers to miners to acquire more locals as well. Two companies Barrick Gold and B2Gold are among the biggest output producers. Both the giants claim that through constructive dialogues the more investors can be attracted and even differences can be solved easily.